箱体类零件加工工艺

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箱体类零件加工工艺(中文4000字,英文2300字)
1.车床
车床主要是为了进行车外圆、车端面和镗孔等项工作而设计的机床。车削很少在其他种类的机床上进行,而且任何一种其他机床都不能像车床那样方便地进行车削加工。由于车床还可以用来钻孔和铰孔,车床的多功能性可以使工件在一次安装中完成几种加工。因此,在生产中使用的各种车床比任何其他种类的机床都多。
车床的基本部件有:床身、主轴箱组件、尾座组件、溜板组件、丝杠和光杠。
床身是车床的基础件。它能常是由经过充分正火或时效处理的灰铸铁或者球墨铁制成。它是一个坚固的刚性框架,所有其他基本部件都安装在床身上。通常在床身上有内外两组平行的导轨。有些制造厂对全部四条导轨都采用导轨尖朝上的三角形导轨(即山形导轨),而有的制造厂则在一组中或者两组中都采用一个三角形导轨和一个矩形导轨。导轨要经过精密加工以保证其直线度精度。为了抵抗磨损和擦伤,大多数现代机床的导轨是经过表面淬硬的,但是在操作时还应该小心,以避免损伤导轨。导轨上的任何误差,常常意味着整个机床的精度遭到破坏。

Processing technology of  box parts
1 Lathes
Lathes are machine tools designed primarily to do turning, facing and boring, Very little turning is done on other types of machine tools, and none can do it with equal facility. Because lathes also can do drilling and reaming, their versatility permits several operations to be done with a single setup of the work piece. Consequently, more lathes of various types are used in manufacturing than any other machine tool.
The essential components of a lathe are the bed, headstock assembly, tailstock assembly, and the leads crew and feed rod.
The bed is the backbone of a lathe. It usually is made of well normalized or aged gray or nodular cast iron and provides s heavy, rigid frame on which all the other basic components are mounted. Two sets of parallel, longitudinal ways, inner and outer, are contained on the bed, usually on the upper side. Some makers use an inverted V-shape for all four ways, whereas others utilize one inverted V and one flat way in one or both sets, They are precision-machined to assure accuracy of alignment. On most modern lathes the way are surface-hardened to resist wear and abrasion, but precaution should be taken in operating a lathe to assure that the ways are not damaged. Any inaccuracy in them usually means that the accuracy of the entire lathe is destroyed.