网络(The NetWorks)

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网 络
网络的诞生
    迄今为止,因特网的历史虽比较简短,但仍然是突破性的。在1960年代,因特网是在美国国防部的实验中产生的。DOD希望发明一种计算机网络,它能在类似原子核战争的重大灾难中发挥作用。如果网络的一部分遭到损害,或者是毁灭性的破坏,那么系统的其它部分仍能正常工作。那个网络就是阿帕网,它连接到美国的科学和学术研究人员。阿帕网是我们今天所用网络是始祖。
    在1985年,全美科学基金会(全美科学财团)创建了NSFNET,这是一系列用于研究和教育交流用的网络。根据阿帕网议定书,NSFNET创建了国家支柱服务,即对任何美国研究是学术机构提供免费服务。同时,地区网络把私人机构和国家主干服务连接起来。
    正如人们对其潜力的估计,也正由于使用起来更简单的新的软件的问世,NSFNET迅速地成长起来。类似美国Sprint通讯公司和美国著名的MCI公司的一些公司也开始构筑他们自己的网络,这些网络连接到NSFNET上。
    当商业公司是其它的地区网络提供商承担起主要网络动脉的管理是,NSF(全美科学财团)已经从主干商务中退了下来。
    NSF也同一种叫做InterNIC的服务对等,InterNIC登记因特网上的所有的地址,以便数据能传送到正确的系统中。现在这项服务已由网络Sloution公司是全美科学财团合力承担了。

The NetWorks
Birth of the Net
The Internet has had a relatively brief, but explosive history so far. It grew out of an experiment begun in the 1960's by the U.S. Department of Defense. The DoD wanted to create a computer network that would continue to function in the event of a disaster, such as a nuclear war. If part of the network were damaged or destroyed, the rest of the system still had to work. That network was ARPANET, which linked U.S. scientific and academic researchers. It was the forerunner of today's Internet.
  In 1985, the National Science Foundation (NSF) created NSFNET, a series of networks for research and education communication. Based on ARPANET protocols, the NSFNET created a national backbone service, provided free to any U.S. research and educational institution. At the same time, regional networks were created to link individual institutions with the national backbone service.
         NSFNET grew rapidly as people discovered its potential, and as new software applications were created to make access easier. Corporations such as Sprint and MCI began to build their own networks, which they linked to NSFNET. As commercial firms and other regional network providers have taken over the operation of the major Internet arteries, NSF has withdrawn from the backbone business.
  NSF also coordinated a service called InterNIC, which registered all addresses on the Internet so that data could be routed to the right system. This service has now been taken over by Network Solutions, Inc., in cooperation with NSF.