初中物理演示实验设计与应用研究(硕士)

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初中物理演示实验设计与应用研究(硕士)(论文21000字)
Discussion on the design and application of typical physics demonstration experiment in junior high school
摘  要
演示实验是初中物理实验教学的重要形式,在初中物理教学中发挥着重要作用。在新修订的课程标准中反复提到要大力培养学生的物理核心素养,学生的物理核心素养之一就是实验探究,而演示实验正好可以培养学生在实验探究方面要求达到的观察能力,分析论证的能力,交流和表达的能力等。新课标对初中物理演示实验提出了更高的要求,这也要求我们物理教育工作者要把握教育大方针,积极开展演示实验的设计与应用工作。当前,初中物理演示实验教学在实际开展中并不顺利,受到演示实验所需器材不足、实验现象不够立体直观、实验前期准备工作较多、实验的教学效果不理想等因素的影响,教师和学生对演示实验的重视度还不够高。因此,在初中物理教学中,我们十分有必要对演示实验做一些新的设计与应用,更大化发挥演示实验在物理课堂教学中的作用,本研究基于上述背景展开研究与讨论。
本研究分六章。第一章绪论部分阐述了研究问题的提出、国内外研究现状以及笔者为完成本文所做采用的研究方法以及具体实践。第二章是关于笔者对目前初中演示实验教学现状所做的调查和分析部分。第三章围绕初中物理教学内容的几大板块分类例举了几个典型演示实验的设计以供研究讨论。第四章是在设计好演示实验的基础上对如何应用进行阐述并配以具体案例具体对象对比分析演示实验设计和应用的实际效果。最后得出第五章的文章结论。关于演示实验的设计环节是本章的重点篇章。

关键词:演示实验;初中物理;教学设计 

Demonstration experiment is an important form of physics experiment teaching in junior middle school, playing an important role in Physics Teaching in junior middle school. In the newly revised curriculum standard, it is mentioned repeatedly that the students' Physical Core literacy should be cultivated vigorously. One of the students' Physical Core literacy is experimental inquiry, and the demonstration experiment can train the students' ability to observe, analyze and demonstrate the ability to communicate and express. The new curriculum standards put forward higher requirements for the physics demonstration experiment of junior high school, which also requires that our physical educators should grasp the education generosity needle and actively carry out the design and application of the demonstration experiment. At present, the teaching of physics demonstration experiment in junior middle school is not successful in actual development. It is not affected by the lack of equipment, the experimental phenomenon is not stereoscopic, the preparatory work of the experiment is more and the effect of the experiment is not ideal, and the teachers and students' attention to the demonstration is not high enough. Therefore, in the physics teaching of junior high school, it is necessary for us to do some new design and application to the demonstration experiment, and to give full play to the role of the demonstration experiment in the physics classroom teaching. This research is based on the above background.
This study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter introduces the research questions, the research status quo at home and abroad, and the research methods and concrete practice to finish the research. The second chapter is about the investigation and analysis of the current situation of junior middle school demonstrational experiment teaching. The third chapter lists several typical demonstration experiments around the classification of physics teaching contents in junior middle school for research and discussion. The fourth chapter is based on the design of the demonstration experiment on how to explain how to apply and to match the concrete case specific object comparison and analysis demonstration experiment design and application of actual effect. Finally, the article draws the conclusion of the fifth chapters. The key part of this chapter is the design of demonstration experiment.

Key word: Demonstration experiment; Junior high school physics; Instructional design
     
目  录
摘  要    i
Abstract    ii
第1章 绪论    1
1.1问题的提出    1
1.2国内外研究现状    1
1.3 研究意义    2
1.4 本论文的研究方法    3
第2章 初中物理演示实验现状调查    4
2.1 问卷设计思路    4
2.2 样本选取    4
2.3 问卷分析    4
2.3.1 学生对于演示实验的兴趣    4
2.3.2 学生对于教学过程中演示实验作用的认可度    5
2.3.3 学生对于教师演示实验的满意程度    6
2.3.4 学生在演示实验中的参与度    7
2.3.5 学生对于自身学习积极性的评价    8
2.3.6 学生对演示实验的主动探索性    9
2.3 调查结论    10
第3章 初中物理演示实验设计    11
3.1 力学类演示实验设计    11
3.1.1 兴趣激发类    11
3.1.2 认知促进类    12
3.1.3 能力培养类    13
3.2 电学类演示实验的设计    13
3.2.1 兴趣激发类    13
3.2.2 认知促进类    14
3.2.3 能力培养类    15
3.3 光学类演示实验设计    15
3.3.1 兴趣激发类    15
3.3.2 认知促进类    15
3.3.3 能力培养类    16
3.4 声学类演示实验设计    16
3.4.1 兴趣激发类    16
3.4.2 认知促进类    16
3.4.3 能力培养类    16
3.5 热学类演示实验设计    17
3.5.1 兴趣激发类    17
3.5.2 认知促进类    17
3.5.3 能力培养类    17
第4章 应用分析与案例    18
4.1 应用分析    18
4.2 案例调查    19
4.2.1 问卷设计思路    19
4.2.2 样本选取    19
4.2.3问卷结果分析    19
第5章  结论    21
参考文献    22
附录一:初中物理演示实验现状调查问卷    24
附录二:    26
附录三:    27