正当防卫必要限度的相关问题及对策探究

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正当防卫必要限度的相关问题及对策探究(论文9000字)
Relevant Problems and Countermeasures of Necessary Limits of Justifiable Defense
摘要
近年来,国内发生的数起防卫刑事案件成为民众广泛关注和热烈讨论的话题。正当防卫必要限度的选择和认定也成为人们关心的法律问题之一。随着我国社会发展的进步,现代民众的法律意识正在快速的增强,我国法律体系也在不断的改革完善。公民运用法律武器维护合法权益的行为和意识也也来越普遍。但是从近年来数起防卫刑事案件的审判结果来看,正当防卫的必要限度和重大损害标准不一导致防卫人合法权益受损的社会争议十分明显,也给人们如何正确实施正当防卫造成很大的困惑,不利益正当防卫制度的发展完善。因此,本文采用案例分析的方法,结合正当防卫必要限度的相关法律规定和“昆山杀人案”正当防卫的法理分析,就如何完善正当防卫制度提出自己的看法和建议。
关键词:正当防卫;必要限度;重大损害;制度完善
Abstract
In recent years, a number of defensive criminal cases in China have become a topic of widespread concern and heated discussion. The choice and determination of the necessary limits of legitimate defense has also become one of the legal issues concerned by people. With the progress of social development in our country, the legal consciousness of modern people is increasing rapidly, and the legal system of our country is also constantly reforming and perfecting. Citizens'behavior and consciousness of using legal weapons to safeguard their legitimate rights and interests are becoming more and more common. However, judging from the trial results of several defense criminal cases in recent years, it is obvious that the difference between the necessary limits of legitimate defense and the criteria of major damage has led to the social disputes that the legitimate rights and interests of defenders have been damaged, which has also caused great confusion on how to implement legitimate defense correctly, and is not conducive to the development and perfection of the legitimate defense system. Therefore, this paper uses the method of case analysis, combines the relevant legal provisions of the necessary limits of justifiable defense and the legal analysis of the justifiable defense in Kunshan homicide case, and puts forward its own views and suggestions on how to improve the justifiable defense system.
Key words: Legitimate defense;Necessary limits;Major damage;System improvement
目  录
一、 引言    1
二、 正当防卫必要限度基本概述    2
(一) 正当防卫的必要限度标准    2
1. 必要限度内的“限度”标准    2
2. “明显超过必要限度”中的“必要”性标准    2
3. 对“唯结果论”的批判    2
(二) 正当防卫必要限度的特征    3
1. 必要性    3
2. 客观性    3
3. 相对性    4
三、 我国正当防卫必要限度司法适用面临的困境    5
(一) 刑法认定正当防卫限度标注不清    5
(二) 过度注重防卫后果    5
(三) 对“防卫处境”的判断过于客观    6
(四) 侵害行为与防卫行为损害的法益不同    6
(五) 取证的局限性影响防卫限度的判断    6
四、 正当防卫必要限度的案例分析——以昆山杀人案为例    8
(一) 案情简述及法理剖析    8
(二) “昆山杀人案”的简要评论    8
五、 完善正当防卫必要限度的对策建议    10
(一) 进一步完善过失犯罪的正当防卫制度    10
(二) 明确无责任能力人所实施的不法侵害    10
(三) 全面认定正当防卫的必要限度    10
(四) 通过指导性案例正确引导    11
(五) 健全刑事司法取证措施    11
(六) 判断不法行为侵害的法益    12
六、 结论    13
参考文献    14